Friday, August 26, 2011

Oral Sex

Oral sex between a husband and wife is considered as Makruh Tahrimi by the jurists, since there is strong possibility that by ejaculation, Mazi (semen) comes out and enters the mouth of the partner. There is consensus amongst the Fuqahaa that Mazi is Najis (impure).

ORAL SEX
Man has been created as a bearer of high and noble attributes. In him he mirrors the attributes of divinity (Sifaat-e-Ilaahiyya) such as life, knowledge, power, will, sight, hearing, speech, love, etc. In the authoritative Tafseer of the aforementioned Aayat, it is said that Insaan (man) has been adorned with the Noor of Aql (the light of intelligence). This celestial faculty of intelligence creates in Insaan the capacity for the manifestation of the lofty and divine attributes of Allah Taãla. By virtue of the Noor of Aql man becomes incandescent by being a mirror for these lofty attributes and manifestation (Tajalliyaat-e-Zilliyah and Sifaat-e-Zaatiyyah). As a direct consequence of this lofty pedestal which Insaan occupies in the Divine Scheme, the mantle of Khilaafah (vicegerency) has been conferred on him. Stating this fact, the Qurãn declares: Verily I shall be creating on earth a Khaleefah.
In the Tafseer of the Aayat mentioned at the beginning, it is also said that in relation to all the species of life, man has been endowned with the most beautiful form. All other animals have been created in a lowly form with their heads downwards. Their faces constantly pointing downwards to the earth indicate their low rank in relation to man. In contrast, man has been created upright and he eats his food by means of raising it with his hands unlike the lowly beasts with faces downwards.

HIS DEBASEMENT
In the Tafseer of the Aayat, it is said that when man willingly destroys his natural ability to progress to the pedestals of elevation, he degenerates and falls from his lofty mansion. He then falls to levels lower than the level of dogs, pigs and even Shayaateen.

SUPERIORITY
According to the authentic Tafaseer, prior to the creation of Aadam (Álayhis salaam), the Malaaikah (angels) entertained the opinion that Allah Taãla will not create any being superior to them. Allah Taãla negates this opinion of the Malaaikah by creating Aadam (Álayhis salaam) and making him a manifestation of divine attributes. To illustrate Insaan's superiority over all pecies of creation, Allah Taãla commanded the Malaaikah to make Sajdah (prostration) to him (Nabi Aadam -- Álayhis salaam). The superiority of man is well emphasised by the statement of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam): "Allah created Aadam in His (Allah's) form." Insha Allah, this Hadith will be explained in greater detail in some future issue of 'the Majlis'. Here it is sufficient to mention the interpretation of the authorities intelligence, sight, hearing, etc. These lofty attributes are located in that part of the human body called head. It is for this reason that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) forbade striking or slapping the face of any human being or even an animal. In the Tafseer of the Qurãnic Aayat which permits husbands to beat wives in cases of necessity, it is said: "The face shall not be slapped". Explaining the reason for the prohibition of slapping the face, Imaam Nawawi (RA) says in his Sharhul Muslim, "Because the face is the embodiment of man's beauty in addition to it being of sublime nature."

THE LATAA-IF-E-SITTAH
In man there are six metaphysical or non-material or spiritual faculties known as the Lataa-if-e-sittah. Two of these lofty faculties, viz. Lateefah Khaafi and Lateefah Akhfa are located in the head. The Lateefah Akhfah is located in the centre of the brain while the location of Lateefah Khafi is between the eyebrows. The functions of these faculties are the highest states of reflection and contemplation, progressing from the high state of Fana to Fanul Fana. These are spiritual or Roohani stages which shall not be discussed in this article.

PATHWAY FOR QURÃN
In the Ahaadith, the following narration appears:
"Verily, your mouths are pathways of the Qurãn, therefore purify your mouths with Miswaak."
The Makhaarij or places from whence Qurãnic huroof (letters) emanate are located in the mouth. The high Ibaadat of Tilaawat of the Qurãn shareef is effected via the mouth, hence the Hadith describes the mouth as the 'pathway of the Qurãn'. Since it is, literally speaking, the channel for the recitation of the Qurãn shareef, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) emphasised much the maintainance of its purity. The emphasis on the purity of the mouth could be gauged from the many times Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) would use the Miswaak everyday to clean his mouth. The practice of Miswaak is strongly stressed by the Shariáh. In one Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, "When the servant of Allah uses the Miswaak and then performs Salaat, an angel stands behind him, listening attentively to the recitation of the Qurãn. The angels draws closer and closer to the reciter and places his mouth on the mouth of the reciter. Thus every word emanating from the mouth of the Musalli enters the angel's mouth. Therefore, maintain your mouth pure and clean for the Qurãn."

ZIKRULLAH
The actual purpose underlying the creation of man is Zikrullah or the remembrance of Allah Taãla. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) ordered Muslims to maintain their tongues fresh with the Zikr of Allah Taãla.
The facts mentioned above will indicate that Insaan is Ashraful Makhlukaat (the noblest of creation) and the noblest part of his body is his head which is the location for lofty faculties and attributes which earn for him the designation of 'the form of Allah'. In order that he maintains his lofty rank and progresses continuously towards loftier mansions and closer Divine Proximity, it is essential that man exercises restraint over his physical and animal qualities. If he fails in this respect, he will descend to a level below the lowly beasts. Allah Taãla has endowed man with intelligence, will-power and shame. He must employ these attributes to subdue his animal and carnal desires and refrain from indulgence in the excesses of lust. If he fails in this achievement he will annihilate himself spiritually and degenerate to sub-animal levels.
The sublimity of Islam is of such a lofty degree that it exhorts its adherence to adopt dignity, deportment and propriety in even sexual relationship. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) advised his Ummah to abstain from total nudity when indulging in sex and not to behave 'like asses'. Since Islam is a culture of transcendental values calculated to ensure maximum remembrance of Allah Taãla, a Muslim should not debase himself to a sub-animal level by resorting to the vile practice of oral sex.
The mouth of Insaan is the pathway of the Qurãn, his tongue has been commanded to remain fresh with Zikrullah; his mouth is situated in the noblest part of his body; the functions of his mouth are noble and lofty; his mouth is a passageway for transference of the recited Qurãn into the mouth of the listening angel. He cannot, therefore, debase and dishonour himself so disgracefully by resorting to the revolting practice of oral sex. A Muslim should not dishonour that head and face which the Shariáh of Islam commands to be honoured. Allah Taãla honoured the human head with noble qualities, the highest being the Noor of Aql, but man debases that lofty part of his body by indulging in an act of bestiality not even committed by the lowly beasts. It does not behove man in general, and a Muslim in particular to degrade himself in this manner.
The Mu'min's link with Allah Taãla is so strong or ought to be so strong that the Shariáh has prescribed a particular Duá to be recited even when a man approaches his wife for sexual relations. Even at the moment of reaching climax and ejaculation, the Muslim is required to read in his mind (without moving the lips) a special Duá so that he remains protected from any Shaitaani interference. We learn from the Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) that Shaytaan attempts to interfere with man even while he indulges in lawful sex, hence the wording of the special Duá for this occasion is: "O Allah! Protect us from Shaytaan and protect the offspring you grant us from Shaytaan".
Allah Taãla has honoured man highly, hence the Qurãn says, "Verily, We have honoured the sons of Aadam". He is therefore not allowed to debase himself with the bestial acts which even the lowly beasts do not commit.
The mouth is an honoured part of the physical body. It is not a receptacle of impurity. The Shariáh emphasises the maintainance of its purity. Even in the developing foetus, Allah Taãla has arranged for the maintainance of the purity of the mouth. The umbilical cord connects the developing embryo to its mother. It is the passageway in which exchange of nutrient and waste materials with the circulatory system of the mother takes place. In man the umbilical cord arises at the navel below which is the location of the rebellious Nafs which reduces man to sub-animal levels if not restrained. Why does Allah Taãla not create the foetus with the umbilical cord attached to its mouth so that its nutrition reaches it in the normal way, viz. Via the mouth? Right until the very last moments prior to its emergence into the external world, the baby's nutrition is via the umblical cord. Immediately on reaching the outside world its nourishment reaches it from the mouth. Since the umbilical cord is also the passageway for impure waste matter, its connection is near to the location of the lowly nafs. The mouth has thus been guarded against impurities.
The facts presented in this article should be sufficient to convey to Muslims that their Imaan and the spirit of the teachings of Islam do not permit them to grovel in the dregs of debasement and perpetrate moral injustice by utilising the mouth for deriving sexual pleasure. This is not the function of the mouth. It is a misappropriation of an amaanat (trust). All parts of the body are Amaanat which have to be utilised in accordance with the instructions of Allah Taãla. Such contamination and moral pollution as entailed by oral sex are most unbecoming the dignity and rank of man, especially if the Insaan appears to be a follower of the illustrious Shariáh of Muhammad (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). Allah Taãla states in the Noble Qurãn, "Verily, Allah loves those who purify themselves".
Extracted from 'The Majlis' Vol. 6 No. 8
And Allah Taãla Knows Best.

Punishment for Neglecting Hijab

QUESTION: Please should you tell me the punishments in the hereafter and in the grave when you die for not wearing Hijab.

ANSWER: Allah Ta’ala commands the wives of the prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) in the noble Qur’aan, thus, ‘And stay within your homes.’ (Ahzaab). Allaamah Zaahid al-Kawthari mentions in his book, ‘Hijaab al-Mar-atul Muslimah’ this is an address to the wives of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), so the women besides them will be addressed to a greater extent.’ The reason being that Allah will not choose just any evil or bad women for the marriage of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). Allah will choose the best of women for this purpose. So, when this is the case that the most pure women of the Ummah are being addressed in this manner, then those women who are junior to them are addressed to a greater extent.
Today, the aspect of Hijaab is misunderstood greatly. The Niqaab is becoming a fashion, people haven’t understood the aspect of Hijaab. The actual object of Hijaab is concealment and to stay indoors. The object of Hijaab is not to just don the veil and parade the shopping malls and shows where there is intermingling of sexes. Wearing the veil is not a license for coming out of the house as it is misunderstood, but only under extreme necessity if a woman has to come out of her house, then she must don the Hijaab (veil) and under this context does this Aayat fit, i.e. O Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)! Instruct your wives, your daughters an the believing women to draw over them their outer garment (veils).’ Otherwise, the law for a woman is she has to remain indoors as we have quoted the Aayat previously, ‘remain indoors’.
What we have understood, thus far, is that a woman must remain indoors at all times, and only due to extreme necessity she is allowed to come out of her house, donning the veil.
What is worse is that today the women adopt al-Tabarruj (i.e. exposure) when they come out. And majority of the time when they come out of their houses, it is without necessity. In doing so, they are going against the book of Allah in many ways, a) They are coming of their houses without necessity where as the Qur’aan commands them to remain indoors (as we have mentioned earlier), b) They are exposing their faces whereas the Qur’aan has commanded them to draw their veils (as mentioned earlier) and Allah Ta’ala and says in the Qur’aan, ‘and abstain from al-Tabarruj (exposure).
Imam Qurtubi (RA) mentions the meaning of al-Tabarruj after gathering all the views of the previous commentators of the Qur’aan. He says, in short, al-Tabarruj means a woman exposing her beauties to men. (Tafseer al-Qurtubi vol.14 pg.175; Cairo)
It is a well-known fact that from all the beauties of a woman, her face is the greatest. So, Allah is commanding her not to expose her face more seriously. So, if a woman does not don the veil when she comes out of the house (even when it is extremely necessary), she will be grossly disobeying the command of Allah Ta’ala and thereby earning the displeasure of Allah. What a greater can there be in disobeying the command of Allah that earning his displeasure! Earning the displeasure of Allah is worst thing a person can ever earn as this will lead to his destruction.
May Allah Ta’ala give us all the ability to understand the reality of Hijaab and observe it according to its requisites.
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Can Women Be Leaders?

Allah Ta'ala says in the noble Qur'aan, 'Men are protectors of woman because Allah Ta'ala has given them more strength and because they support them from their means.' (Nisaa AAYAT34)
In this case, the word, 'protectors' refers to one who stands firm in protecting other's interests, looks after his affairs, business, etc. The commentators of the noble Qur'aan have written under the abovementioned verse that Allah Ta'ala has chosen men and has given them virtue over women. Whilst men have many responsibilities to take care of, females also have responsibilities. The responsibility of men having authority over women is not confined to only religious matters, but it is general and refers to any matter, be it religious, political or with regard to any department, council or organization. This authority for the male over the female does not belittle the status of woman in the least bit.
To make us understand, the example of a male and female is like that of the head and the hand. Whilst the male being the head if the most important part of the body and holds the most amount of respect and authority, this in no way whatsoever proves that the hand (woman) is useless and has no status in the body. The matter about woman having more capabilities than men does not hold much weight since the basis for the authority of men over women is not capabilities, intelligence, wealth or any other material entity which can be acquired.
The commentators have clearly stated that the virtue and authority that has been given to men is on the basis of their species, i.e. because they are men. Hence, it is a great possibility that there are many women who have great potential, intelligence and wealth and seem to be more worthy for leadership. However, Allah Ta'ala has, in his infinite mercy and wisdom, stipulated this position for men on the basis of them being men even though they may at time lack in capabilities and expertise as compared to women. (Ma'ariful Qur'aan vol.2 pg.396; Deoband)
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Female Leadership in Islam by Moulana Muhammad Karolia

Introduction
 
Female leadership is a question not unknown to the Muslim world. Although Muslim scholars have in the past discussed this topic, it first gained prominence in the twentieth century with the wake of the women's liberty movement. In recent years the question was further highlighted with the success of Benazir Bhutto in the 1989 elections in Pakistan and Khalida Zia in the 1991 election in Bangladesh.
Recently some women in South Africa also embarked on a similar campaign claiming the right of leadership even in Salâh. This article is a study of the position of female leadership in the Shariah and will be followed by a discussion on women leading the Salâh and delivering lectures from the mimbar (pulpit).


Can a Lady Rule a Country?
Prior to Islam, women were among the most oppressed creatures in the world. Neither did they have any rights nor were they regarded as human-beings in many communities.
Islam on the contrary, raised the social status of a woman and granted her many rights ranging from inheritance to the basic necessities of everyday-life. Regarding these rights Allâh Ta'âla says in the Qurân: "And women have rights similar to the rights against them (i.e. the right of men) according to what is equitable and men have a degree over them." [BAQARAH: 228]
Mufti Muhammad Shafi Saheb (RA) explains this verse: "The rights of women that men are responsible for are compulsory just as the rights of men that women are responsible for are compulsory. The right of both (men and women) have been given the same ruling ...... it is not necessary that the rights of both take the same form. Instead, if women are responsible for a specific duty then so are men. Household matters, training and looking after the children are the responsibility of the women whereas men are responsible for earning a living so that they may fulfil the needs of women (their wives). It is a lady's duty to serve and obey her husband and the mehr (dowry) and expenditure of the women is the husband's duty. (In short, even though each have different rights over the other, the rights of both are incumbent.....) There is however one quality on accord of which man have superiority over women. This is why Allâh Ta'âla, at the end of this verse says: "and men have a degree over them."
Mufti Shafi (RA) thereafter explains that this degree of superiority that men have over women is explained in the verse: "Men are overseers of women because Allâh Ta'âla granted virtue to some of them (i.e. men) over others (i.e. women) and because of their spending from their wealth." [NISâ 34]
Shaikh Muhammad Rashid Rida offers a similar explanation: "...... the lady equals the man in all rights (i.e. in the ruling of all rights) except one which Allâh refers to in the sentence 'and men have a degree over them.'" This degree is explained in the verse "men are overseers .....". (Huqooq-un-Nisâ fil Islâm)
It is therefore necessary that we now focus our attention on this verse of the Qurân in the light of some acclaimed commentators of the Qurân.


"Men are Overseers of Women"
Allamah Ibn-ul-Arabi (RA) comments on this verse:
The meaning of this verse is: I have made men overseers of women because I have granted the former superiority over the latter. This is due to three reasons viz.
  1. perfect understanding
  2. perfection of deen and obedience in jihad and commanding the good and forbidding the evil etc. This has been explained by Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam in an authentic Hadith:
    "I have not seen any one of deficient intellect and deen who is more destructive to the intelligence of a cautious man than you women." The women asked: "Why is that, O messenger of Allâh?" He replied: "Do you not spend a few nights without performing salâh and without keeping fast? This is the deficiency of her deen and the testimony of one of you equals half the testimony of a single man - this is the deficiency of her intellect. "... so that if one of the two women errs, the second would remind her". (Al Baqarah, verse 281)
  3. His spending on her in the form of dowry and other expenditure. (Ahkâmul Qurân, verse 1, pg.416) Allamah âlusi (RA) writes in the commentary of this verse that it is the quality of men to oversee the affairs of women just as the rulers oversee their subjects by commanding them to do good etc. This ruling is attributed to two reasons: one being wahbi (this is granted solely by Allâh) and the other Kasbi (i.e. achieved on account of his action):
    1. because Allâh has granted him superiority as has been narrated (in the Hadith) that women are deficient in intellect and deen and men are the opposite, that is why risalat (prophethood), imamat-e-kubra and sughra (major and minor leadership), Adhân, Iqâmat, khuthba etc. are confined to men. (meaning that only men were Rasuls and Nabis and only man can rule, lead the salâh etc.)
    2. because men bear the expenditure of women. (Ruhul Ma'âni, vl.5, pg.23)
Before considering Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani's (RA) commentary, it is necessary that we first refer to the verse:
"And do not covet that which Allâh favours some of you with over others - men will receive the reward of what they earn and women will receive the reward of what they earn. And ask Allâh of his bounty. Verily Allâh has full knowledge of all things." [An Nisâ - 32]
Hafiz Ibn Katheer (RA) narrates on the authority of Imam Ahmad and Imam Tirmidhi that Umme Salmah (RA) said: "O Messenger of Allâh! The men wage Jihad whereas we (women) do not and we receive half the inheritance." (i.e. blood-brothers receive double the share of blood sisters). Thereafter the verse "And do not covet......" was revealed. (Ibn Katheer vl.1, pg.498)
This verse would therefore mean that when Allâh has granted some of mankind (i.e. men) virtue over others (i.e. women) by means of certain actions, then it is incorrect to covet the favour of Allâh on them because each of them will be rewarded according to his actions. Envy and complaining is of no avail. On the contrary, it would be most beneficial to ask Allâh for more reward for one's actions. Complaining and envy yield no reward. However all good actions yield reward. Verily Allâh has knowledge of everything and knows fully well the wisdom in specifying certain actions for man only. He knows best which actions are appropriate for men and which are appropriate for women.
Commenting on the verse "men are overseers....." Maulana Shabeer Saheb Uthmani (RA) writes: "It was mentioned in the previous verse that the rights of men and women have been given full consideration. Had their rights been given a different consideration (women's right were not considered fully as men's rights) women would be justified in complaining. This verse now explains that men have a status higher than women, women cannot complain because the difference of rules (regarding men and women) that result on accord of this additional degree of men is in total agreement with divine wisdom.....". (Tafsir-e-Uthmâni Pg.128)

Summary
Just a few commentaries of the verses concerned have been mentioned above. Many other commentators have elucidated the meaning of these verses in a similar manner. The above discussions may be summarised in the following points:
  • Although both men and women have rights upon each other that are compulsory, their rights do differ in many situations.
  • Men have an additional right over women - they are their overseers and guardians.
  • There are two reasons due to which men have been given this additional right over women. Firstly, they have to give the women their dowries and they are responsible for all their expenses.
    Secondly,Allâh granted man this favour when creating him, women had been created as the weaker sex. Besides, women experience monthly menstrual periods due to which they are unable to perform salâh and fast during that period. Thus the hadith has classified her as deficient in deen. The hadith has in a similar vein regarded her as deficient in intellect because the Qurân has regarded the testimony of one lady equal to half the testimony of a single man. (see Al-Baqarah, verse.282)
  • Since the rights of women have been given the same amount of importance and consideration as the rights of men, women should not complain of men having an additional right over them. If they do, they would be questioning the wisdom of Allâh.

Conclusion
It may thus be concluded that although men and women are equal in that both have rights, they do not have the same rights. Among the sole rights of a male is that he is always the head of a family since he is the guardian of the women. Leadership of a country is in a similar vein the sole right of men. Most commentators of the Qurân have explained the verse under discussion that just as men only rule a country, lead the salâh etc. only men can be the head of a family. A few examples are:
  1. QURTUBI "..... and the judges, rulers and mujahideen are among the men and this is not found among the women." (Qurtubi, vl.5, pg.168)
  2. IBN KATHEER "..... that is why nubuwat is reserved for men just as rulership ....."(Tafseer Ibn Katheer vl.1, pg.503)
  3. BAIDAWI " .... that is why nubuwat (prophethood), leading the salâh, leading a country and establishment of other sha-âir (distinguishing features) of deen (e.g. adhân, iqamah) are confined to men only. (Tafseer al Baidawi Pg.111)
In short, this verse has encompassed a major reason why women cannot rule in the Shariah. Just as she cannot lead a home, she cannot lead a country.

Another Verse from the Qur'ân
Describing women, Allâh Subhanahu Ta'âla says in the Qurân: "Is then one brought up among trinkets and unable to give a clear account in a dispute (to be associated with Allâh). (Az-Zukhruf: 18 ) i.e. women are normally brought up in decoration and adornment and are always occupied with jewellery. This is a proof of deficient intellect and understanding (because true beauty is the beauty of the Akhirah) and due to a weak understanding, women are unable to express themselves clearly when debating." (Tafseer-e-Uthmani pg. 652)
This verse substantiates the claim that women are physically weak and unable to fulfil the duties of leadership. It has thus been made the right of men only.

Hijâb and Female Leadership
Hijâb is generally understood to mean the donning of a veil. This is however incorrect. The scholars of Islam have included the following verses in the discussion of hijâb:
  1. "And stay in your houses. And adorn not yourselves with the adornment of the time of Ignorance." (Al Ahzâb: 33)
  2. "And when you ask of them (wives of Nabi Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam) anything, then ask them from behind a curtain." (Al Ahzâb: 53)
  3. ".... therefore be not soft of speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease, aspire (to you) but utter customary speech." (Al Ahzâb: 32)
  4. "O Nabi! Tell your wives and daughters and the women of the believers to draw their jilbâbs (a special cloak that covers the entire body) close around them ...." (Al Ahzâb:59)
  5. "And they (the women), should not stamp their feet so as to reveal their hidden adornment." (An Nur:31)
From these verses, the following rules of hijâb may be deduced:
  1. The lady should at all times remain in her home.
  2. If due to any shar'ie necessity (eg. Haj, visiting her parents, visiting the ill etc.) (Ruhul Ma'âni vl.22 pg.6) then she should cover her entire body including the face.
  3. She has to communicate with men from behind a curtain.
  4. She must not lower her tune when speaking with strange men.
  5. She should not walk in such a manner that would attract the attention of men.
  6. Intermingling of the sexes is prohibited in Islam.
Besides these, it has also been established from the Hadith that a lady cannot travel further than 77 kilometers without a mahram (any such male relative with whom marriage is prohibited). (Tirmidhi Vl.3 pg.472)
It is clear from the above that the implications of Hijâb are in direct conflict with the duties of leadership. In order to ensure the welfare of his subjects, the leader has to leave his home daily, meet and consult with people (men in particular) and travel to various parts of his country and sometimes to other countries as well. These cannot however be achieved if a lady has to be the ruler and at the same time observe the rules of hijâb. It is on this accord that Shariah has prohibited female leadership.

Warning of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam
A female leader would either be contravening the rules and regulation of Hijâb or neglecting the welfare of her subjects. Thus Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: "A nation that has entrusted its affairs to a woman can never be successful."(Bukhari vl.5, pg.136, Bukhari vl. 4 Page 97, Nisai vl. 8 Page 227, Tirmidhi vl. 5 Page 457)
Imam Tirmidhi (RA), after narrating this hadith, says: "This is a sound and authentic hadith."
In another hadith we read: "Men are destroyed when they obey women."
Hakim (RA) writes that the chain of narrators is authentic and Hafiz Dhahabi (RA) has also agreed that this hadith is authentic. (Quoted by Ml. Y.Ludhyanwi on the authority of Mustadrak Hakim, vl.4, pg.291)
Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam also said: "When your rulers are the best among you, your wealthy are generous, and your matters are decided by mutual consultation, then the surface of the earth is better for you than the belly of the earth. However, when your rulers are the worst among you, your wealthy are miserly and your matters are in the hands of your women, then the belly of the earth is better for you than its surface." (Tirmidhi vl.4, pg.459)
Commenting on the quality of this hadith, Imam Tirmidhi writes: "This is a Gharib Hadith (i.e. a hadith that had been narrated by only one person in each era until the codification period) - we do not know it except from Salih-al-Murriy. There are some strange facts in the narrations of Salih in which he is unique (mutafarrid). He is however, a pious man."
Nevertheless all scholars of Islam; commentators of the Qurân, Hadith and jurisprudence have, on the basis of the Hadith "A nation will never be successful ...." unanimously agreed that female leadership is not permissible in Islam.

Some Quotations
The reader has already seen the opinions of some leading commentators of the Qurân (âlusi, Ibn Katheer, Baidawi and Qurtubi). Here are a few more quotations from the writings of other scholars:
  1. Hafiz Ibn Hajr (RA) and Hafiz Badruddin Aini (RA) write in their respective commentaries of Bukhari: "There is proof in this hadith that a lady cannot be appointed to the office of leadership or as a judge." (Fathul Bari vl.8 pg.129)
  2. Qadi Abu Bakr ibn ul-Arabi (RA) writes in his commentary of Tirmidhi: "This proves that only men may be appointed as leaders (rulers). There is a consensus that women have no right to rulership." (âridatul Ahwadhi vl.9, pg 119)
  3. Allama Shawkani (RA) writes in the commentary of this hadith: "In it is a proof that women do not qualify for any sort of leadership. It is not permissible to make a lady the leader because it is compulsory to abstain from anything that will result in failure." (Naylul Awtâr vl.8, pg 298)
  4. Qadi ibn-ul-Arabi (RA) writes again in Ahkâm-ul-Qurân: "This is clear proof that a lady cannot become the khalifah (leader of the Muslim state) - There is no difference of opinion in this matter." (Ahkâmul Qurân vl.3,pg.29)
  5. Allamah Mawardi (RA) and Shah Wali-ul-llah (RA) have listed "Zukoorah" as an essential requirement of a Muslim ruler." (Hujjatullah-ul-Balighah Vl. 2 Page 396,Izalatul Khifa Vl. 1 Page 19, Shâmi Vl. 1 Page 548)
  6. Allamah Shami explains: ".... because women have been commanded to remain in their homes, their condition is therefore based on remaining concealed ...." (Shâmi vl.1, pg 458)
  7. Qurtubi, after listing "being a male" as one of the necessary conditions of a ruler says: "They are unanimous that it is not permissible for a lady to become a leader." (Tafseer Qurtabi, vl.1 pg.270)
  8. Imam Baghawi after quoting the hadith "A nation can never be successful ...." says that it is an authentic hadith and thereafter comments: "They have unanimously agreed that a lady neither has the ability to become a leader nor a judge because it is necessary for the leader to leave his home in order to establish jihad and see to the matters of the Muslims. Similarly the judge has to leave his home in order to pass judgement in arguments. A lady is however "Awrah" (something that must be concealed) and cannot (unnecessarily) leave. Because of her physical weakness, she is unable to see to most matters of the Muslims. A woman is also deficient whereas leadership and passing judgement are among the greatest appointments. (Sharhus Sunnah vl.10, pg.77)
NB: An extremely important point is made in the above quotations: There is "ijmâ" (consensus of opinion) among the ummah that female leadership is not permissible. Ijmâ is the third most important source of Islamic law and cannot be opposed.

Consider the Following:
Protagonists of female leadership should consider the following:
  • The messengers of Allâh were always men. Never was a lady deputed as a Rasul or Nabi. "And We have not sent messengers before you except that they were men." [Al-Ambiyâ: 7]
  • Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam had during his lifetime despatched many jamâts (for the sake of da'wah and jihad etc.) but never did he appoint a female as ameer of any of these jamâts. (Fatawa Mahmoodia, vl.10, pg.129) NB: The scholars have enumerated approximately 60 jamâts of this nature that were despatched by Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam. (Zadul Ma'âd vl.1, pg. 129) These jamâts are normally referred to as Sarâya by the historians.
  • Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam had on many occasions personally led military expeditions. On such occasions he would leave a deputy to see to the matters of the women, children, aged and ill people that were still in Madina. For example, he made Hazrat Ali (RA) his deputy at the time of Tabuk and Abu Lubâbah bin Abdul Munzir at the time of Badr. These deputies were however never women. (Fatawa Mahmoodia vl.10, pg.129, Zâdul Ma'âd vl.3, pg.172 & 529)
  • Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam had four muazzins - Hazrat Bilal, Hazrat Abu Mahdhoorah, Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umme Maktoom and Sa'd al-Qurdh. ( Fatawa Manmoodia, vl.10, pg.127; Zâdul Ma'âd vl.1, pg.124) None of them were women, and it has never been narrated from the salaf (pious predecessors from the Sahâbah, Tabieen and Taba-Tabieen) that women may give Azân. On the contrary, jurists have regarded it as makrooh. (Durrul Mukhtâr, vl.1, pg.392)
  • In a similar manner the duties of iqamat, khutbah of jumuah and the eids, imamat of salâh etc. can only be fulfilled by men.(Fatawa Mahmoodia, vl.10, pg.125/6)
Besides ruling a country, standing as a candidate in a political party, leading any other movement or organisation and becoming a member of a masjid or madressah committee are also not permissible for a lady because:
  • these are not her functions in society,
  • if she does engage herself in such activities, she would be contravening the rules of the Qurân and Hadith regarding hijâb and female leadership.

"Bilqees: The Queen of Saba"
Protagonists of female leadership normally justify their claim with an analogy of Bilqees of Saba - whose story is mentioned in the Qurân (Al Naml 20-24). This analogy is however very strange and can in no way substantiate their claim, because:
  1. Bilqees was a disbeliever at that time as is clear from the verses: "I found her and her nation prostrating to the sun ...." [Verse 24] "Verily she was of a disbelieving people". [Verse 43]
    Later, with the invitation of Hazrat Sulayman (Alaihis salâm) she brought Islam. She said: "Oh my Rabb! Verily I have wronged my soul and I have surrendered with Sulayman to Allâh, Rabb of the worlds." [Verse 44]
    After embracing Islam, she also surrended her kingdom to Sulayman (AS) as was the order of Sulayman (AS). This is apparent in the following verse: He said: "Do you give me abundance in wealth .... go back to them, for we will most certainly come to them with such armies that they will not be able to oppose, and we shall expel them in disgrace and they will be humbled." [Verse 37]
    There is thus no indication in the narrative that Sulayman (AS) had approved of and permitted her to continue ruling her kingdom. It is sometimes argued that after Bilqees brought Imân, Sulayman (AS) married her and therafter sent her to rule Yemen. This argument is however incorrect because it is based on very weak Israeli narrations and besides being weak, these narrations are very contradictory. While some say that after marrying Bilqees, Sulayman (AS) kept her with him, others say that he sent her to rule over Shâm (Syria). Allamah Qurtubi (RA) has in his tafseer also declared all these narrations as incorrect and unreliable. (Awrat ki Serbarahi by Ml.Y. Ludhyanwi pg.33 and Mufti R. Uthmani - Al Farooq Arabic Quarterly, Rabiul Awwal 1410-1989)
  2. The legislation of the previous ambiyâ is not necessarily a proof. The shariah of the previous ambiyâ can only be regarded as a valid argument if there is no verse of the Qurân or hadith contradicting it. We have however already seen that the Qurân, hadith and Ijm (consensus of the Ummah) do not permit female leadership. (Ibid) Mufti Muhammad Shafi (RA) writes in Ahkamul Qurân:
    "If it is argued that the trend in the Qurân is to boldly refute any evil action of the Kuffar that the Qurân quotes and (the absence of any refutation in these verses indicate permissibility), then our reply is: Firstly:
    The generality of the claim is not known (meaning this is not an established fact). Secondly: it is not necessary that such an act be refuted in the very same verse that discusses it. It will suffice if such an act is refuted in some other place (in the Qurân) or in any other shari proof.
    Thus if female leadership has been refuted in the Hadith of Bukhari, it would be sufficient explanation of it's evil (and impermissibility)." (Ahkâmul Qurân vl.3, pg.29)

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and the Battle of Jamal (The Camel)
Protagonists of female leadership substantiate their claim from Hazrat Aisha's (RA) participation in the Battle of Jamal. Hazrat Uthmân (RA) had been murdered just after the days of Tashreeq. The wives of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had, after completing the rites of Haj just left Makkah Mukarramah on their return journey to Madinah Munawwarah. Upon receiving the news of the murder of Hazrat Uthmân (RA) they changed the direction of their journey and returned to Makkah. The Muslims at that time were in utter turmoil. Hazrat Ali (RA) had taken the bay'at (pledge of allegiance) from the people of Madina and the assassins of Hazrat Uthmân (RA). He felt that it would be more appropriate to allow the turmoil and confusion to settle and thereafter avenge the blood of Hazrat Uthmân. Others however differed and thought it of greater importance to first avenge the blood of the assassinated Khalifah. Thus, a group of senior Sahabah (RA) including Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair gathered in Makkah and persuaded Hazrat Aisha (RA) to use her influence as Umm-ul-Mu'mineen to help them unite the Muslims and therafter demand the requital of the blood of Hazrat Uthmân (RA). Hazrat Aisha agreed and it was decided that they would proceed to Basrah. The rest of the wives of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam refused to join Hazrat Aisha (RA) and returned to Madina. Although Hazrat Hafsah (RA) agreed with Hazrat Aisha (RA), her brother, Abdullah ibn Umar (RA) did not allow her to join the campaign to Basrah. (Summarised from Al Bidayah wan Nihayah vl.7,pg.230)
A closer study of the battle of Jamal and the events leading to it (most of which were mentioned above), would reveal the futility of justifying female leadership from it because:
  1. Hazrat Aisha (RA) was not the leader of the army. Neither at the time of suggesting that she accompany the army did they consider making her their leader nor later during the cause of the expedition was she regarded as their leader. Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair had asked her to accompany them so that she could use her influence to convince the masses of the nobility of their cause. This is why the rest of the wives of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam were also requested to accompany the expedition and Hazrat Hafsah (RA) had even accepted the request.
  2. Neither was Hazrat Aisha (RA) intending to capture the khilafat from Hazrat Ali nor were Hazrat Talha and Zubair (RA) intending to do so. They were only demanding that the assassins of Hazrat Uthmân be brought to task. (Fathul Bari vl.3, pg.56) In fact they had barely thought of meeting the forces of Hazrat Ali (RA) on the battle field. Allamah ibn Taymiyyah (RA) writes: "Neither did Hazrat Aisha (RA) fight (in the battle) nor did she leave (her home) in order to fight. She had only intended to create peace among the Muslims and thought that the Muslims would benefit by her leaving (for Basrah etc.) .... They did not have any intention of fighting on the day of Jamal. The battle however took place without their choice. Because when Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair (RA) had negotiated and agreed on re- conciliation and that after they had settled they would seek the assassins .... The assassins therefore feared that Hazrat Ali would agree with them (Hazrat Zubair etc.) to capture them, and they therefore captured the camp of Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair (RA). They thought that Hazrat Ali had attacked them and in defence attacked the camp of Hazrat Ali. Hazrat Ali (RA) thought that Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubair had attacked him and retaliated in defence. The battle thus occurred without their choice. Hazrat Aisha (RA) was seated (on the camel) - neither did she fight nor did she command anyone to do so. (Quoted by Ml.Y. Ludhyanwi on th authority of "Minhâjus Sunnah" pg.185, vl. 2)
  3. Many Sahabah (RA) disagreed with her participation in the campaign. Many had written to her expressing their dissatisfaction. Hazrat Umme Salma (RA) wrote her a lengthy letter admonishing her: " ..... Had Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam known that women are able to endure (the difficulties of) jihad, he would have entrusted you! Do you not know that he (Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam) had prohibited you from travelling in the cities? Verily the pillar of deen neither remains firm with women nor wealth and it cannot be repaired by women if it has to crack (break). The jihad of women is the lowering of the gaze and the drawing of the hem and the intending of modesty. What would you say to Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam if he has to object to some of these mistakes - sitting on a camel travelling from place to place? I take an oath that if it has to be said to me: "O Umme Salmah! Enter Jannah! I would be ashamed to meet Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam while I had torn a veil (barrier) he had placed over me. Therefore make it your veil (barrier) also ...." (quoted by Mufti R.Uthmani from Al Aqdul Fareed vl.5,pg.66)
  4. Hazrat Aisha (RA) had written a letter to Zayd bin Suhan encouraging him to join Hazrat Talha and Zubair and if he disagrees, he should dissuade the masses from joining Hazrat Ali (RA). He replied:
    ".... Verily I am your loyal son. If you leave and return home, (then I will obey you) otherwise, I would be the first to oppose you." He also said: "May Allâh have mercy on Ummul-Mu'mineen. She has been commanded to stay in her home and we have been commanded to fight ....". (Ibnul Atheer vl.3, pg.216) Hafiz Ibn Hajar (RA) narrated that after the battle, Ammar Bin Yasir (who was from Hazrat Ali's camp) said to Hazrat Aisha (RA): "How distant is this journey from the command that was imposed on you!" (referring to the verse: 'And remain in your homes').
    She replied: "Are you Abul Yaqdhan?"
    He replied in the affirmative, upon which she said: "In the name of Allâh, ever since I know, you always speak the truth." He said: "All praises are due to Allâh who has decided in my favour on your tongue." (Fathul Bari vl.13,pg.58)
  5. Hazrat Aisha (RA) later regretted joining the expedition to Basrah as is clear from the above narration. Later in her life she would say: "I wish I had stayed behind just as others (from the Ummahat-ul-Mumineen and many Sahabah) had stayed behind ....". (Fathul Bari vl.13,pg.55) "I wish I were a fresh twig and I had not undertaken my journey ..."
    It is narrated that whenever Hazrat Aisha used to read the verse "And remain in your homes," she would cry so excessively that her veil would become soaked. (Quoted by Mufti R.Uthmani-Al Farooq Quarterly - Siyar A'lam un Nubala vl.8,pg.80)

Can a Lady Lead the Salâh?
The Fuqaha (Muslim jurists) have discussed two types of Imamat viz:
  1. Imamat-e-Kubra: Major leadership, referring to the leading of a country.
  2. Imamat-e-Sughra: Minor leadership, referring to the leading of the Salâh.
Just as the shariah has reserved imamat-e-kubrah for men only, it has reserved imamat-e-sughra for men only. (Some jurists have permitted female imamat of the Salâh when the congregation is purely female. This will be discussed later Insha-Allâh).

Women Leading Men in Salâh
Most, if not all fuqaha (Muslim jurists) are of the opinion that women cannot lead men in salâh. If any man performs his salâh behind a female imam, his salâh would be null and void. Below are the opinions of each of the four madhahib.
  1. Hanafi Madhab - "And it is not permissible for men to follow a lady in salâh." (Hidayah vl.1. pg.209)
  2. Shafiy Madhab - "And a male following a lady (in salâh) is incorrect."(Minhâj:Allamah Nawawi vl.1, pg.241)
  3. Maliki Madhab - "Salâh will therefore not be correct behind a lady (imam)."(Bulghat-us-Salik: Allamah Sâwi vl.1.pg.146)
  4. Hambali Madhab -"It is not correct in the opinion of the general fuqaha, for a man to follow a lady (in salâh)."(Al Mughni: Ibn Qudamah vl.2, pg.199)
Ibn Rushd-al-Qurtubi writes: ".... The jamhoor (general majority) are of the opinion that it is not permissible for her to lead the men in salâh ...." (Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1, pg.105)

Why Can She Not Lead the Men in Salâh?
  1. Nothing has been narrated regarding this from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam or the Sahabah (RA) or the Tabi-een. Had it been permissible, it would have definitely been recorded in the books of Hadith and Fiqh. (Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1,pg. 105 & As Saylul Jarrar vl.1, pg.250)
  2. On the contrary Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had commanded the women to stand at the rear of the congregation (if they do attend the congregational salâh). The reason being that women are to be hidden and have been commanded to observe hijâb. If men have to follow a lady imâm in salâh, they would have to stand behind her. This is in total contrast with the rules of hijâb. (Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1,pg. 105 & As Saylul Jarrar vl.1, pg.250) A hadith has been narrated regarding women standing at the rear of the congregation: "Place them in the rear as Allâh has placed them in the rear." (Nasbur Rayah vl.2, pg.36 - quoted from Musannaf Abdur Razzâk- although this hadith is mawqoof, (the chain of narrators terminates on Hadhrat Ali radhiallah anhu, the fact that man should occupy the first rows, thereafter the children and behind the children the women is established from other authentic ahâdith - see Bukhari vl.1, pg. 211)
  3. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: ."... and a lady should not lead a man in salâh ...." (Sunan Ibn Majah vl.1,pg.250)
  4. The generality of the hadith "The nation that has entrusted it's affairs to a lady cannot be successful," demands that women do not qualify to be entrusted with any sort of leadership duties. Salâh is the most noble and important matter of the Muslims. Can we entrust it to a lady and hope for success? (As Saylul Jarrar - Allamah Shawkani vl.1,pg.250)
Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (RA) after explaining the opinion of the majority writes that some Hambali scholars are of the opinion that "it is permissible for her to lead the men in taraweeh salâh (but) she will stand behind them. It (lady leading the taraweeh) will be permissible because of the narration of Umme Waraqah (RA) that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had appointed a muezzin for her who would given azân for her and He commanded her to lead the people (ahl) of her dâr (house) - Abu Dawud has narrated this hadith. (See Abuj Da'ud vol.2 Page 161 Beirut).
Ibn Qudamah however disagrees with these Hambali scholars and refutes their claim explaining that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had only permitted her to lead the women of her home (nisâ-e-ahle-dâriha) - this is how Dâr-Qutni has narrated this hadith. When an addition of this nature is narrated, then it is compulsory to accept it. Had the extra word 'Nisâ' (women) not been narrated, there would have been some possibility of substantiating one's claim from this hadith. Besides, this hadith does not pertain to Taraweeh or any other nafl or sunnah salâh because the hadith also says that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam had appointed a muezzin to call the azân for her. Azân is not called out for nafl or sunnah salâh. It is only called for the fardh salâhs. (Al Mughni vl.2,pg.199) There is however no difference of opinion even among the Hambali Fuqaha that women cannot lead men in fardh salâh. This hadith is therefore referring to a purely female congregation only.
Apart from the jamhoor (majority), Abu Thour and Tabri have allowed women to lead the salâh even it there are men in the congregation. Ibn Rushd said that they have based their claim on the hadith of Umme Waraqah.(Bidayatul Mujtahid vl.1,pg.105)
Ibn Qudamah's explanation of the hadith however leaves no doubt that they have erred. Other than Abu Thour and Tabri, the entire ummah has 'ijmâ' (unanimous agreement) that women cannot lead men in salâh.

Can a Lady Lead a Purely Female Congregation
  • AHNâF: If a lady leads the salâh of a purely female congregation, then salâh will be correct. It is however makrooh tahrimi for women to form their own congregation. (Hidayah vl.1,pg.305; Bada'i-us Sanai vl.1,pg.157)
  • MâLIKIYYA: A lady can in no circumstance be the Imam even if the congregation be entirely female. The salâh of even a lady behind a female imâm is invalid.Bulghatus Salik vl.1, pg.146; Ashalul Madarik, vl.1,pg.241)
  • SHAWâFI: A lady can be the imam of a purely female congregation. In fact it is mustahab for them to form their own congregation. (Al Mughni vl.12,pg.199; Bada-i vl.1,pg. 157)
  • HANABILA: The salâh of a lady behind a lady imâm is permissible. There is however difference of opinion regarding women forming their own congregation (behind a female imam). (Al Mughni l.12, pg.199)
The Shafi and Hambali scholars substantiate their opinion with the hadith of Umme Waraqah (RA) that was mentioned earlier.
It is similarly narrated that Hazrat Umme Salmah (RA) and Hazrat Aisha (RA) used to lead the women in Salâh. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah vl.2, pg.88-89)
While it is narrated from Hazrat Ali (RA) that "a lady cannot be an imâm"(Ibid) and from Nafi (RA) that: "I do not know that a lady can lead the women in salâh"(Ibid), Hanafi Scholars also explain that when a lady does lead a purely female jamât, she has one of two options:
  1. She stands in front of the first row (just as a male imam would do). This is however makrooh because it is contrary to the spirit of Hijâb.
  2. She could stand in the middle of the first row (as Hazrat Aisha and Hazrat Umme Salmah did). This however is also makrooh because it is wajib (necessary) in a congregational salâh that the Imam stands a little in front of the first row. (Fathul Qadeer vl.1, pg.306)
Hanafi Fuqaha therefore explain the ahadith of Umme Waraqah, Aisha and Umme Salmah (RA) as mansukh (abrogated). Although Sheikh Kamal Ibn Humâm has after critically discussing the possibility of abrogation concluded that purely female congregations are makrooh-e-tanzihi, the general body of Fuqaha-e-Ahnâf regard it as makrooh-e-tahrimi. The fatwa (preferred verdict) is also on tahreem (prohibition)."And a purely female congregation is makrooh-e-tahrimi, even though in taraweeh."(Durrul Mukhtar, vl.1, pg.528)

Can a Women Deliver a Lecture from the Mimbar?
A few verses of the Qurân regarding hijâb have been previously mentioned under the caption "Hijâb and female leadership." Among these verses were: "And stay in your houses and do not make a dazzling display like that of the former times of ignorance." (Al Ahzâb:33)
This verse implies that it is necessary for a woman to remain in her home at all times. She may only leave her home on account of a shar'ie necessity. (eg. Haj, Umrah, visiting the ill and visiting her parents etc.)(Tafseer Ibn Katheer,vl.13,pg.491). Going to the musjid in order to perform salâh is not acceptable in the light of the general opinion of the Sahabah and the Ulama of Islam. A lady that leaves her home in order to deliver a lecture to a mixed gathering of men and women (from the mimbar) would firstly be contravening this important principle of the Shariah.
In another verse Allâh Ta'âla says:
"And when you ask them of anything, then ask it of them from behind a curtain." (Al Ahzâb:530 "... therefore be not soft in speech ..." (Al Ahzâb:32)
These verses imply that if a lady has to communicate with a strange man while at home, then this communication should be from behind the curtain. (i.e. the lady should not be seen at all) and when speaking she should not speak in a lowered tone.
In yet another verse Allâh Ta'âla says:
"Oh Nabi! Tell your wives and daughters and the women of the Believers to draw over them their jilbâb." (Al Ahzâb:59) ii.e. If due to any necessity a lady is compelled to leave her home, she should cover herself with the jilbâb. The jilbâb is a large sheet that extends from above the head to the feet including the face. (in other words she is commanded to cover the entire body including the face).(Ibn Katheer vl.13, pg.526) (There is consensus of opinion that the face must also be covered in times of evil and corruption.)
A lady that delivers a lecture from the mimbar is unable to fulfil the demands of the above-mentioned ayât and her action is contrary to the spirit of Hijâb. In a purely female congregation two, the lady imâm stands in the middle of the first row and not ahead of the first row as a male imam would do. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah vl.2,pg.88/89 ; Hidayah vl.1,pg.306 ; Al Mughni vl.2,pg.2)
In view of the above, it is not permissible for a lady to deliver a lecture from the mimbar.

Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: "A lady is 'AWRAH' (something to be concealed). Thus when she leaves, shaytân stares at her."[Tirmidhi Pg. VI]





Thursday, August 25, 2011


 
After Witr Prayer
Recite:
سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ
"I mention the Purity of the Owner, i.e. Allah who is Pure".
or read
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِرِضَاكَ مِنْ سَخَطِكَ وَبِمُعَافَاتِكَ مِنْ عُقُوبَتِكَ وَأَعُوذَ بِكَ مِنْكَ لَا أُحْصِي ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ
"O Allah, I seek Your refuge (protection) from your displeasure through. Your pleasure and from Your punishment with forgiveness. I seek refuge from all calamities and punishments. I have no words to Praise You as You have praised Yourself.

(Hisnul Hasin)

Supplication


 
After Witr Prayer
Recite:
سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ
"I mention the Purity of the Owner, i.e. Allah who is Pure".
or read
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِرِضَاكَ مِنْ سَخَطِكَ وَبِمُعَافَاتِكَ مِنْ عُقُوبَتِكَ وَأَعُوذَ بِكَ مِنْكَ لَا أُحْصِي ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ
"O Allah, I seek Your refuge (protection) from your displeasure through. Your pleasure and from Your punishment with forgiveness. I seek refuge from all calamities and punishments. I have no words to Praise You as You have praised Yourself.

(Hisnul Hasin)

Supplications - Dua - Prayers



Dua For the Night of Qadr (Power)
Recite:
اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ الْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي
"O Allah, you are the Most Forgiving, and One who loves forgiving, therefore forgive me". (Tirmidhi)

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

LAILATUL QADAR MEANS


video
The term Lailatul Qadar is made of two words. In Arabic, Lailat means night and Qadr means honour and dignity. Therefore, the term Lailatul Qadr refers to the night of honour and dignity. It is this night in which the first Divine Revelation came to the Prophet sallalahu alayhi wasallam, when he was in meditation and prayer in the Cave of Hira’. Since this night enjoys the honour of having the first revelation brought to the Prophet sallalahu alayhi wasallam, it has been named Lailatul Qadr.
This is one of the holiest and most blessed nights, which is likely to occur on one of the odd nights on the last ten days of Ramadhaan, most likely to be the 27th. The reward of worship on this night is better than the worship of a thousand months of worship, equivalent to a person’s lifetime. So, on this night one should perform the night prayers, recite the Qura’n, do tasbih, zikr and du’as as much as possible.
This night had already opened its gates of treasures when the angel for the first time had come with the Divine Message in the cave of Hira, but its auspiciousness has continued to be with us permanently. Every year in the month of Ramadhaan, this night is given to the Ummah. Muslims engage in prayers, recitation of Qur’an and praying to Allah. As the Prophet sallalahu alayhi wasallam was reported to have said:
“The person who offered prayers to Allah in the night of Dignity with faith and with hope of reward from Allah, all his past sins have been forgiven.” (reported by Bukhari)
In the Hadith, we have been asked to seek it in the last ten nights of the month of Ramadhaan. A’ishahradhiyallahu anhaa narrates that the Messenger of Allah sallalahu alayhi wasallam has said:
“Seek the night of Dignity in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadhan.”(reported by Bukhari)
By odd nights, the reference is made to the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th, 29th night of the month of Ramadhaan. No one night has been fixed so that the yearning to find it may increase and people may spend more nights in worshiping Allah. From this aspect, the importance of `Itikaaf (seclusion) during the last ten days of Ramadhaan is clear.
The Tahajjud Prayer- Salatul Layl - Night prayer- (Namaz-e-Shab)

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:

"Our Lord, blessed and exalted is He, descends every night to the nearest heaven when the latter one-third of the night remains, (and) says, Is there any one who calls upon Me so that I may accept of him, who asks of Me so that I may grant him, who seeks forgiveness of Me so that I may forgive him?"

This is the time Almighty Allah asks the angels to witnesses our dua's

Importance


The Tahajjud Prayer (Namaz-e-Shab) ranks first and foremost in importance among all other optional (Sunnat) prayers.

Tahajjud means to abandon sleep so as to pray Salat.

The Qur’an refers to it in Surah 17:79 and says, “And (during part) of the night, abandon sleep
and keep vigil to pray Salat, in addition to the regular obligatory prayer. Your Rabb (the Sustainer)
may (as a reward) elevate you to the position of High Distinction, Glory and Praise.”

The verse quoted above which prescribes Salatul-Layl has been placed immediately
next to the verse (17:78) which prescribes the regular daily obligatory Salat.
Therefore, it underscores the great importance of Salatul-Layl.
Although optional, Tahajjud is considered “nearest to obligatory (Wajib) prayer.”

Merits

--By praying Salatul-Layl one’s livelihood is increased, one passes easily

through “Sakaraat” (great and grueling pain a dying person suffers at the time of death)

and finds happiness in “Barzakh” (the Spiritual world where the departed souls

stay either in happiness or misery, until the Day of Resurrection).

Imam Jaffar Sadiq (a.s.) quotes Imam Ali (as) as saying that the Prophet (saww)

said that a person who prays Salatul-Layl gets the following twenty four kinds of benefits:

1. Secures Allah’s pleasure.
2. Makes friendship with Angels.
3. Is the Sunnat of the Prophets (a.s.)
4. Provides the means to pursue knowledge.
5. Constitutes the root of our faith.
6. Keeps one physically fit.
7. Drives Shaytan away.
8. Protects one from enemies.
9. Serves as a means of acceptance of one’s Duas and good deeds.
10. Increases one’s livelihood.
11. Intercedes with the Angel of Death.
12. Lights up the grave.
13. Provides comfortable bedding in the grave.
14. Helps answering with ease the questioning of Munkar and Nakir in the grave.
15. Gives companionship in the grave.
16. Provides shelter on the Day of Judgment.
17. Crowns one on the Day of Reckoning.
18. Clothes one on the Day of Resurrection.
19. Provides one with light on the Day of Judgment.
20. Forms a barrier against the fire of Hell.
21. Gets Allah’s pardon on the Day of Judgment.
22. Increases the weight of good deeds on the scale.
23. Helps one crossing the Bridge of “Siraat” without any difficulty.
24. Forms the key to the Paradise.

Time


The time for praying Salatul-Layl is from midnight (midnight is reckoned as the time which is exactly half the time between sunset and the actual dawn) to the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers. However, it can be prayed at anytime after Isha prayers but it is better to pray during the last part of the night near to the time of Fajr prayers. If it is not possible to pray after midnight or before Fajr, then it can be prayed in the morning or any part of the day with the niyyah (intention) of Qadha. It is better to pray with the niyyah of Qadha during the day time than to pray in the early part of the night.
Note: According to Ayatullah Seestani, the time for Salatul-Layl is from midnight to the Adhan time for Fajr prayers. However, it is better to pray near the time of Fajr prayers. Anyone who finds it difficult to pray Salatul-Layl after midnight can pray before midnight.

METHOD


---Salatul-Layl is of eleven Rak’ats.

----The first eight Rak’ats are prayed as normal in pairs of two Rak’ats each with the niyyah of Nawafilatul-Layl.

----The next two Rak’ats are prayed with the Niyyah of Salatul Shaf’a.

----The remaining one Rak’at is prayed with the Niyyah of Salatul Witr.

In the last one Rak’at, Qunoot is recited before Rukuu and the Salat is

completed as usual with Tashahud and Salaam. The last one Rak’at is prayed as follows:

--Hold Tasbih in the right hand for keeping count of the dhikr mentioned below to be recited.

--Make Niyyah and say Takbiratul Ihram.

--Recite: Surah Al-Hamd;

--Surah Qul Huwallahu Ahad - three times;

--Surah Qul-Audhubi Rabbil Falaq - once;

--Surah Qul-Audhubi Rabbin Naas - once.


--Say Takbir and raise both hands for Qunoot.

1. You may recite any Dua. However, it is recommended to recite the following Dua.

Laa ilaaha illallaahul Halimul Karim لآ اِلَهَ اِلاَّ اللّهُ الْحَلِيْمُ الْكَرِيْمُ
Laa ilaaha illallaahul ‘Aliyyul ‘Azim لآ اِلَهَ اِلاَّ اللّهُ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيْمُ
Subhaanallaahi Rabbis Samaawaatis Sab' سُبْحَانَ اللّهِ رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ
wa Rabbil ‘Arzinas Sab' وَ رَبِّ الاَرْضِيْنَ السَّبْعِ
wa maa fihinna wa maa baynahunna وَ مَا فِيْهِنَّ وَ مَا بَيْنَهُنَّ وَ
wa Rabbul 'Arshil ‘Azim رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيْمِ
Wal Hamdul lillaahi Rabbil 'Aalamin وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ

There is none worth worshipping but Allah Who is Forbearing and Generous

There is none worth worshipping but Allah Who is Most High and Great

Glory be to Allah, Who is the Sustainer of the seven heavens and of the seven earth

And Who is the Sustainer of all the things in them, and between them,

And Who is the Lord of the great ‘Arsh (Divine Center of Authority & Power)

And all praise for Allah, the Sustainer of the worlds.

2. Then, while holding the Tasbih in the right hand, raise the left hand and
pray for forgiveness of forty [40] or more Mu’mineen/Mu’minaat who are
either dead or living in the following manner.
Allaahummagh Firli… (Name) اَللّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ ل...
O Allah, forgive … giving the names of Mu’mineen/Mu’minaat. (In each case saying, Allahummagh Firli …….)

If unable to remember 40 or more names, can say, Allahummagh firlil mu`umineena wal muslimeena
meaning, Oh Allah forgive all the believers and muslims

3.Continuing with the Qunoot, while still raising the left hand, recite the following Istighfar seventy [70] times:

Astaghfirullah Rabbi wa Atuubu Ilayh اَسْتَغْفِرُ اللّهَ رَبِّي وَ اَتُوْبُ اِلَيْهِ

I seek forgiveness of Allah my Lord and I turn to Him

4. Still continuing further while raising the left hand,
recite the following Dua seven [7] times:

Haadhaa Maqaamul 'Aaidhi Bika Minannaar هذَا مَقَامُ الْعَآئِذِ بِكَ مِنَ النَّارِ

This is the position of one who seeks refuge in You from the fire [of Hell]

5. Continuing yet further while still raising the left hand, recite three hundred [300] times:

اَلْعَفْوَ Al-'Afwa

(I ask for) forgiveness

Finally, complete the Salat in the normal way by going to Rukuu’ followed by Sajdah,

Tashahud and Salaam, ending Salatul-Layl.

As a Ta’kibaat after the Salat, recite Tasbih

of Janabe Fatemah Zahra (a.s.),

34 times Allahu Akbar;
33 times Al-Hamdu Lillah:
33 times Subhanallah,

followed by Sajdah of Shukr.

Next, recite Ayatul Kursi.

Finally, for the second time,

perform Sajdah of Shukr, completing the Salat.

Salatul-Layl is made up of eleven Rak’ats.



1.)  The first eight Rak’ats are prayed as normal in pairs of two Rak’ats each with the niyyah of Nawafilatul-Layl.

2.)  The next two Rak’ats are prayed with the Niyyah of Salatul Shaf’a.

3.)  The remaining one Rak’at is prayed with the Niyyah of Salatul Witr.

Saturday, August 20, 2011


 'Divine Will (Al-Qadar)' of Sahih Bukhari.
 593
 Narrated 'Abdullah: Allah's Apostle, the truthful and truly-inspired, said, "Each one of you collected in the womb of his mother for forty days, and then turns into a clot for an equal period (of forty days) and turns into a piece of flesh for a similar period (of forty days) and then Allah sends an angel and orders him to write four things, i.e., his provision, his age, and whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter). Then the soul is breathed into him. And by Allah, a person among you (or a man) may do deeds of the people of the Fire till there is only a cubit or an arm-breadth distance between him and the Fire, but then that writing (which Allah has ordered the angel to write) precedes, and he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it; and a man may do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only a cubit or two between him and Paradise, and then that writing precedes and he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it."
 594
 Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "Allah puts an angel in charge of the uterus and the angel says, 'O Lord, (it is) semen! O Lord, (it is now ) a clot! O Lord, (it is now) a piece of flesh.' And then, if Allah wishes to complete its creation, the angel asks, 'O Lord, (will it be) a male or a female? A wretched (an evil doer) or a blessed (doer of good)? How much will his provisions be? What will his age be?' So all that is written while the creature is still in the mother's womb."
 595
 Narrated Imran bin Husain: A man said, "O Allah's Apostle! Can the people of Paradise be known (differentiated) from the people of the Fire; The Prophet replied, "Yes." The man said, "Why do people (try to) do (good) deeds?" The Prophet said, "Everyone will do the deeds for which he has been created to do or he will do those deeds which will be made easy for him to do." (i.e. everybody will find easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created).
 596
 Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet ; was asked about the offspring of the pagans. He said, "Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live)."
 597
 Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle was asked about the offspring of the pagans. He said, "Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live)." Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "No child is born but has the Islamic Faith, but its parents turn it into a Jew or a Christian. It is as you help the animals give birth. Do you find among their offspring a mutilated one before you mutilate them yourself?" The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! What do you think about those (of them) who die young?" The Prophet said, "Allah knows what they would have done (were they to live)."
 598
 Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "No woman should ask for the divorce of her sister (Muslim) so as to take her place, but she should marry the man (without compelling him to divorce his other wife), for she will have nothing but what Allah has written for her."
 599
 Narrated Usama: Once while I was with the Prophet and Sa'd, Ubai bin Ka'b and Mu'adh were also sitting with him, there came to him a messenger from one of his daughters, telling him that her child was on the verge of death. The Prophet told the messenger to tell her, "It is for Allah what He takes, and it is for Allah what He gives, and everything has its fixed time (limit). So (she should) be patient and look for Allah's reward."
 600
 Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: That while he was sitting with the Prophet a man from the Ansar came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We get slave girls from the war captives and we love property; what do you think about coitus interruptus?" Allah's Apostle said, "Do you do that? It is better for you not to do it, for there is no soul which Allah has ordained to come into existence but will be created."
 601
 Narrated Hudhaifa: The Prophet once delivered a speech in front of us wherein he left nothing but mentioned (about) everything that would happen till the Hour. Some of us stored that our minds and some forgot it. (After that speech) I used to see events taking place (which had been referred to in that speech) but I had forgotten them (before their occurrence). Then I would recognize such events as a man recognizes another man who has been absent and then sees and recognizes him.
 602
 Narrated 'Ali: While we were sitting with the Prophet who had a stick with which he was scraping the earth, he lowered his head and said, "There is none of you but has his place assigned either in the Fire or in Paradise." Thereupon a man from the people said, "Shall we not depend upon this, O Allah's Apostle?" The Prophet said, "No, but carry on and do your deeds, for everybody finds it easy to do such deeds (as will lead him to his place)." The Prophet then recited the Verse: 'As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah..' (92.5)